Archivio per la categoria 'Libri'

IJSP contents 2/2017

30 anni dalla pubblicazione di Mental Training

30 anni fa usciva il mio primo libro di psicologia dello sport. Mental Training illustra un programma di preparazione psicologica organizzato su 8 settimane. Come scrisse nel 1992 John Salmela in The World Sport Psychology Sourcebook: “Mental Training is an original initiative that resembles many of the North American applied sport psychology “how-to” books”. Il libro, infatti, si rivolge agli atleti con l’intenzione di fornire schede per la valutazione di alcune abilità psicologiche di base e del loro comportamento agonistico e d’insegnare competenze mentali relative al goal setting, al rilassamento, all’allenamento ideomotorio e alla concentrazione. E’ un libro pratico e utile anche agli psicologi che vogliono avvicinarsi al mondo sportivo agonistico, fornendo un sistema che permette di programmare il proprio intervento attraverso compiti e abilità da sviluppare settimanalmente. E’ un libro che si basa sulle mie esperienze svolte negli anni precedenti con squadre di pallavolo di club e nazionali. In quegli anni era già presente una letteratura scientifica relativamente vasta in cui si evinceva l’efficacia del mental training per gli atleti di alto livello. In quello che si può considerare il migliore libro di psicologia di quel periodo, Psychological Foundations of Sport a cura di John Silva e Robert Weinberg (1984),  vi era una parte del libro (5 capitoli) centrata sui temi connessi alla gestione dello stress agonistico. Pertanto non fu difficile trovare un fondamento scientifico al programma che avevo sviluppato. Inoltre, in relazione alle durata del programma di 8 settimana, decisi di fare questa scelta poiché Richard Suinn, che per primo aveva introdotto nel 1971 nello sci alpino americano, un programma di gestione dell’ansia agonistica attraverso l’integrazione del rilassamento con l’allenamento ideomotorio (che lui chiamava: ripetizione  visivo-motoria del comportamento) basato su 10 incontri, come fosse una psicoterapia breve. Pensai che fosse necessario un periodo più lungo e mi orientai su un periodo di due mesi

Risultati immagini per mental training alberto cei

Recensione libro: Allenare nel calcio femminile

Allenare nel Calcio Femminile

Emanuele Chiappero, Rita Guarino e Nicola Sasso

Milano: Edizioni Correre

2017, pp. 144 

Il calcio femminile è in continua crescita ovunque nel mondo. Sono 30 milioni le praticanti, pari al 40% totale delle atlete. In Europa, però, sono solo 1.200.000 e solo in 6 paesi le calciatrici sono almeno 60.000 (Danimarca, Inghilterra, Francia, Germania, Olanda, Norvegia e Svezia). In  Italia, nel 2016 le giocatrici erano 23.000. Questo libro vuole rispondere alla esigenza di chi lavora in questo ambito del calcio di comprendere quali ne siano le specificità legate al profilo di prestazione di una squadra di calcio femminile. Quanto presentato si fonda sui dati scientifici che abbiamo a disposizione e da cui vengono fatti discendere le metodologie operative  di cui servirsi sul campo. Il libro è diviso in tre parti. La prima, di Emanuele Chiappero, laureato in scienze motorie e preparatore atletico professionista, riguarda il modello prestativo della calciatrice: la valutazione degli aspetti fisici, la prestazione in campo e la donna atleta. Emerge che le calciatrici presentano un range di valori medi in relazione all’altezza (1.61-1.68m), minore peso rispetto ai maschi (57.7-64.1kg) e maggiori percentuali di grasso corporeo (14.6-22.3kg). Da notare che in relazione al ruolo, alcune indagini hanno evidenziato che i portieri presentano diversità fisiche più marcate rispetto agli altri ruoli in relazione a peso e altezza e con una maggiore percentuale di grasso. La ridotta ricerca in questi ambiti, ad esempio, non permette di avere ad oggi dati certi sulla coordinazione e il suo rapporto tra calciatrici e calciatori; anche se le donne sembrano avvantaggiate a partite dai 18 anni sotto il profilo della capacità di orientamento spaziale, senso del ritmo, equilibrio e motricità fine. Il capitolo sulla prestazione in campo fornisce dati interessanti, scoprendo che una ragazza corre circa 9-12 km in una partita e compie circa 250 brevi azioni anaerobiche, con sprint ripetuti della durata di 2-4 sec, con intervalli di 90 sec per 39 volte a partita. Inoltre nel calcio femminile si effettuano meno azioni intense  al minuto rispetto alla Serie A maschile (3.30 vs 4.5) e maggiore è il recupero passivo (18 sec vs 12 sec al minuto). La seconda parte del libro è di Rita Guarino, psicologa, allenatrice professionista UEFA A e allenatrice della nazionale italiana femminile U17; riguarda l’allenamento della mente e della tecnica nel calcio femminile. Il testo descrive in modo chiaro e ben organizzato le caratteristiche psicologiche delle ragazze, i cambiamenti che avvengono durante lo sviluppo evolutivo e il ruolo dell’allenatore. In particolare in relazione alla costruzione della mentalità di giocatrice l’approccio utilizzato parte dall’approccio di Bandura, evidenziando che allenare la mente significa da parte delle ragazze un rilevante investimento personale e e sul modo di concepire i propri mezzi in maniera sempre più consapevole. Avendo come obiettivo la crescita del senso di efficacia personale. Viene, inoltre, proposto il profilo di prestazione di Butler con esempi specifici di competenze collegate al calcio. Dal punto di vista della metodologia dell’insegnamento il libro propone un approccio che alterna approccio globale e analitico, fornendo le ragioni di questa scelta. In seguito, nelle successive 40 pagine di questa parte vengono presentati con figure e testo accanto: i test tecnici, le proposte didattiche relative all’apprendimento della tecnica e quelle riguardanti la collaborazione nel gioco tattico individuale e collettivo.  Infine, alcune pagine sono dedicate al portiere, ne viene sottolineata la complessità psicologica, la solitudine da sconfiggere. Il portiere deve combattere le proprie paure, deve essere consapevole della sfida, per imparare così a essere risoluta e rapida nelle decisioni e negli spostamenti. La terza parte del libro, di Nicola Sasso. preparatore atletico professionista e laureato in fisioterapia e in scienze motorie, tratta del lavoro preventivo e della valutazione delle calciatrici. Vengo descritti gli infortuni nel calcio femminile, i fattori di rischio, il lavoro preventivo da attuare per ridurre la frequenza d’infortunio, e i vari tipi di valutazione (strutturale, postulare, funzionale).

Recensione libro: Insegnare per allenare

Insegnare per allenare 

Metodologia dell’insegnamento sportivo

Claudio Mantovani (a cura di)

Roma: Edizioni SDS, CONI

2016, p.379, 30 euro

In un mondo sportivo sempre più specializzato è necessario che anche l’insegnamento dello sport risponda alla stessa esigenza. L’allenamento non è solo una questione di perfezionamento della tecnica sportiva ma perché sia efficace è altrettanto importante che il modo in cui si allena abbia la stessa attenzione. Come sempre bisogna sapere cosa fare ma allo stesso tempo bisogna sapere come fare, cioè come trasmettere i contenuti tecnico/tattici sportivi. Pertanto questo libro, scritto da esperti in questo ambito, va a coprire questa necessità.

Contenuti

  • Le competenze didattiche del tecnico sportivo – Claudio Mantovani
  • La comunicazione efficace – Alberto Cei
  • La motivazione nelle attività sportive – Claudio Robazza
  • L’apprendimento delle abilità motorie – Laura Bortoli e Claudio Robazza
  • La didattica: L’insegnamento delle tecniche – Laura Bortoli e Claudio Robazza
  • Il processo di osservazione nello sport – Alberto Cei
  • Lo sport giovanile e il rapporto con le famiglie – Laura Bortoli
  • La valutazione delle abilità motorie – Franco Merni
  • Il valore del gioco come strumento educativo – Paolo Seclì
  • L’etica nello sport – Emanuele Isidori
  • La formazione dei tecnici sportivi – Claudio Mantovani

Recensione libro: Soccer Speed

Soccer Speed

Richard Bate and Ian Jeffreys

2015, pp. 216

Champaign, IL,  Human Kinetics

Why is Speed so important in today’s soccer?

Definitely during its history, soccer has changed in the rules of the game, in sportswear and footwear, in game organisation. But there are other key factors that differentiate modern soccer:

  • Today’s game is quicker; specifically, both ball speed (as it travels from player to player) and players own movements are much faster than they were even just 10 or 15 years ago.
  • Players now regularly cover distances between 9-14 km per game, because they are running faster and moving more often.
  • The game features of today’s attack are the accuracy and speed to pass the ball.
  • The typical characteristic of a player has also evolved into a quicker, more agile and physically sculpted athlete.

So Speed is a vital commodity for players who want to maximize their performance.

In soccer we’re talking about Game speed, in other words the speed requirements for soccer are different compared the practice by track athletes; indeed, the player during the game moves in an open environment in which distance, direction and starting pattern all vary from moment to moment. In addiction, the athlete’s movements need to be linked with game skill requirements. Maximum speed and Acceleration (two important terms related to running speed) are performed to accomplish a soccer-specific task, such as shooting, tackling, dribbling or passing. Players are also required to change direction more than a 1000 times per game, exactly every 6-7s. Those directional movements are closely linked with the high speed actions. So it’s important the development of Agility too. For modern players Speed and Agility are two key components that contribute to the ultimate quality of performance.

Speed is important for decision making of players. The game rarely presents exactly identical situations, especially in free play, so the abilities to think and decide at speed, to act at speed, and to change decision at speed are crucial to “build” an intelligent player.

Development of Speed and Agility starts with young players coaching, remembering the essential of sensitive phases, in other words the “fertility” moments of development of physical abilities. We can start to stimulate the abilities of reaction and movements frequency (Cyclic speed) at 6 years old, even if the peak is between 9-11 years old. The rapidity of isolated movements (No-Cyclic speed) and Acceleration have their sensitive phase during 11-14 years old. After those years Speed and Agility will tend to stabilise and then decrease. So it’s vital to create right training programs that help players to maintain this capacity to high levels, remembering and following the elements of a Game speed program (technical and physical development) and the right Game speed exercise progression.

(di Michele Rosci)

Recensione libro: Ultramaratoneti e gare estreme

Ultramaratoneti e gare estreme

Matteo Simone

Roma Prospettiva editrice, 2016, p.298

Parlare di ultramaratona è difficile perché con facilità si può scadere nella retorica del sacrificio, del no pain-no gain. Questo libro, invece, parla di questo tema dando voce alla esperienze positive e negative di chi corre. Infatti si parla all’inizio della corsa, anzi del movimento, e di quanto sia importante muoversi quotidianamente scegliendo la misura che è più indicata e piacevole per la persona. Successivamente il lettore è condotto nel mondo della corsa di lunga distanza e quindi anche in quello dell’ultramaratona. Qui il racconto assume sempre più una dimensione narrativa in cui Simone Matteo fa parlare i diretti protagonisti attraverso le loro esperienze. La maggior parte di loro sono persone comuni, non atleti professionisti, che parlano delle ragioni che sottendono a questa scelta sportiva. Sono in generale motivazioni che nascono dal desiderio di migliorare la conoscenza di se stessi, attraverso la conoscenza di quali siano i propri limiti e come superarli. Il corpo parla continuamente a questi amanti dell’endurance, poiché la distanza determina sollecitazioni che le corse brevi e di media lunghezza non arrivano a determinare. Ascoltarsi vuol dire anche sapere quando fermarsi dando retta proprio ai segnali che provengono dal fisico. Non ascoltarli significa andare incontro a problemi fisici anche gravi, come viene raccontato da alcuni runner. Il libro scorre in modo interessante poiché Matteo Simone narra delle storie personali senza avere la pretesa d’insegnare cosa sia l’ultramaratona ma lasciandola scoprire al lettore attraverso le parole di chi la pratica. Ognuno di noi se ne farà quindi un’idea personale, basata su cosa riteniamo sia la corsa, la corsa di lunga distanza e il nostro rapporto con il movimento. E’, quindi, un libro aperto a diverse soluzioni interpretative dettate dalle esperienze di chi legge e credo che questo sia il suo pregio principale.

 

 

 

Lo sviluppo motorio e psicosociale in bambini con disabilità intellettive attraverso il calcio

Movimento

Rivista di Psicologia e Scienze del Movimento e dello Sport

n.2/3, 2016, 63 pagine

Roma: Edizioni Luigi Pozzi

 

Lo sviluppo motorio e psicosociale in bambini con disabilità intellettive attraverso il calcio

Motor and psychosocial development in children with intellectual disabilities through soccer

 

Alberto Cei*’, Paolo Franceschi^, Michele Rosci^, Daniela Sepio’ e Bruno Ruscello°

*Università San Raffaele, Roma e ASD Calcio Integrato

^AS Roma Calcio

‘ASD Calcio Integrato

°Università di Tor Vergata, Roma

 

Parole chiave: bambini, autismo, calcio, apprendimento, empowerment

Key words: children, autism, soccer, learning, empowerment

 

 

Abstract

Calcio Insieme (Soccer Together) is a project promoted by Roma Cares Foundation, non-profit organization linked to the broader context of Social Responsibility and Sustainability of AS ROMA and A.S.D. Accademia di Calcio Integrato, whose objective is the development of education and culture integrated to the values of sport through the soccer.

Soccer is the sport most loved and practiced by girls and boys around the world, but for young people with developmental difficulties are rare, if not absent, the opportunities allowing them to live this sport as an educational and playful experience. Therefore, this applied research project, spread over three years, is aimed at children (6-12 years) with intellectual disabilities and with particular reference to those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Soccer Together project wants to promote the physical activity and soccer teaching for these children, in order to improve the quality of their lives through a continuous sport practice over time. Furthermore, this project wants also to develop a methodology model of teaching, tailored for these children, through this applied research.

Soccer Together began in September 2015 with the collaboration of some schools of Roma. They promoted among families of children with intellectual disabilities the knowledge of this initiative. They organized information meetings lead by the staff of Soccer Together to start building a community whose school, family, sport organization and staff could feel part of a common project at its center there are the children with intellectual disabilities and especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since the beginning the project has had as main focus the empowerment of each child through the soccer, as recommended by the International Paralympic Committee.

To better understand the different steps of the experiment carried out by the technical-scientific staff of Soccer Together at the Giulio Onesti Center, in Roma, it’s important to acknowledge what are the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and what are the limits and the motor/psychological potential of children with ASD; the report describes in detail the main features and the research results.

This report begins with an overview of autism spectrum disorders and what are the limits and the motor potential of these children. It emerges that, up to now, the experiences carried out in this area included only individual sports and that no investigation has been conducted to test how the group sports and soccer specifically could be a means of improving the motor/sports skills and the psychological and interpersonal skills. In the section devoted to the method are described the diagnoses of 30 children (27 boys and 3 girls). They  have participated in the project by attending at the training program for an hour twice a week for 5 months. They were divided into two sub-groups (Green and Red) as a function of their motor skills and psycho-relational competences. All children were subjected to the initial and final motor assessment. Similarly it proceeded with the psychological and interpersonal evaluation carried out at the beginning and at the end of the program. This was done through interviews with parents and their school teachers and an assessment carried out on the field for the duration of the period of activities carried out by the football coaches and the sport psychologists. In addition, before the start of the program, the whole staff,  including sport psychologists, youth football instructors, one speech therapist, one sport physician and one coordinator of the relations with families and schools have participated in a specific training, theoretical and practical, learning to be sensitive and to work with young individuals with developmental disorders. The results showed that in relation to motor skills there are significant differences from the initial assessment in relation to 6 tests out of 10. The children improved in tests regarding: walking between the cones, running between the cones, roll on the mat, high jump (3 obstacles 20 / 30cm), grab (5 launches from 1 to 5 meters away from the instructor) and stay balanced on jellyfish.

In relation to run with the ball (to drive the ball into a space 15m long and 4m wide) were detected two results. The first is that, even at the end of the program, 39.3% of children did not show any improvement. The second is of opposite sign and shows that 28.6% is placed in an intermediate skill level. They drive the ball, move frequently left and right even if out of the lane. In addition, 10.7% shows a medium-high skill level, driving the ball without leaving the lane. These data show there is a significant difference from the point of view of the motor competences among the children, while for some the training it’s characterized more as motor activity oriented to the acquisition of basic motor patterns, for others it’s oriented to  teach the soccer fundamentals.

The questionnaire administered at the end of the program to the parents of the children examined the following skills: cooperation, participation in the games, understanding the others and be understood, communicate with each other, socialize, approach the new situations/people and reduction of behavioral problems. For each of these skills, the parents have expressed a final assessment, it showed that they believe their children are improved significantly. It’s also interesting to note that the same questionnaire was administered to school support teachers of children and the resulting data are similar to those experienced by parents. Assessments made on the field by sport psychologists and coaches have shown that most of young people have improved, even if  they achieved very different skill levels, depending on the difficulty level initially expressed. For the future, there are clearly detectable paths of physical activity and sports differentiating the two children groups (Red and Green).

In summary, these data confirm the findings of the research review conducted on people with autism spectrum disorder (Sowa e Meulenbroek, 2012). That is to say, that the motor/sport skills increase with specific program of motor/sports learning. Our study adds that the organization of training sessions in group interventions and individual interventions promote the development of social skills, as in part it has been showed by Walker, Barry and Bader (2010). This pilot study has also responded to the request to organize “a naturalistic intervention based on group sports like soccer” (Sowa and Meulenbroek, 2012; p.56) and, till now it was never been documented. In addition, as already showed (Luiselli 2014), the behavioral problems were reduced, decreasing the stereotyped movements and the self-stimulation behaviors.

Finally, it should be mentioned those results achieved which are not identifiable in scientific terms but that at the same time are important for a project with the aim to reduce the limits of the children with ASD and widen their skills at 360 degrees. The most significant are the following: the first football games played between them and the coaches and two games 4vs4 with players of Roma Academy; the identification process with AS Roma has increased the children socialization and stimulated their pride being a part of Roma team; live this experience with professionals totally dedicated to them and willing to respect the times of socialization and learning while not ceasing to guide them in the activities; for families it has been important to meet each other, sharing these experiences and feeling themselves as an active part of the project.

Recensione libro: One Goal – The mindset of winning soccer teams

One Goal

The mindset of winning soccer teams

Bill Beswick

Human Kinetics, 2016, p. 222

What I liked more in the book titled “One goal” by Bill Beswick is the great passion and competence that he shows in every chapter. The goal of this book is to describe why/how a psychologist has to be committed in this kind of job. The answer is that there are a lots of things to do, but only if you are passionate. This means that what you read inside, you cannot in any other book concerning performance psychology, because is coming from the application of the expertise and passion to a specific context. The second reason to read this book comes from the several professional examples that Beswick provides in each chapter. This approach is relevant because the young professional has to know that the consultant job with a team needs these skills. It means that our knowledge science-based need to be translated in terms to be useful in the everyday job with the team, the players and the head coach and probably with the team managers too. The book goes around a main focus based on two interrelated concepts: the positive environment supports the fighter mentality. Therefore the team has to share a unifying identity and culture and it must be very well clarified that the positive results come from this homogenous mindset and the viceversa is never true. So the team culture is based on common: effort, enthusiasm, execution and endurance. First the attitude, than any other specific competence (strength or focus or game schema).  At this regard, Beswick say:

“Arguably, the most successful team in international sport, the New Zealand All-Blacks rugby team, clean their own locker-room after the game, showing the humility that is common to many great teams.”

Another relevant topic concerns how the coach teach individual and collective responsibility, in the first part of the book there many ideas that a coach can use to work on it, to reach this important goal. In the second part the main topic is presented in the chapter titled “Fostering coachability.” It’s a key attitude to develop a winning career. The players’ progresses depends on their coachability, that is the relatively stable position to be involved in the process of continuous improvement independently from the current skills, performance level and roles. Another important point is related to the players’ personal accountability and I agree with the Beswick’s  Ten key elements of the accountability cycle (goals and standards, reminders, culture, learning environment, accepting justified criticism, regular feedback, thunderbolts, internal challenge, can’t do or won’t do?, accountability without blame). If the team and the coach will respect these rules they will show an higher threshold for alibis, becoming more accountable and successful.  As Michael Jordan said:

“the better players learn to say «I played bad but tomorrow I’ll play better». A lot of younger players are afraid to admit they have bad nights but everybody has bad nights and it’s how you rebound from those bad nights that dictates what kind of player you are going to be.”

The third part of the book is about competition and the key words are competing cohesively, the momentum, pressure, overcoming adversity, repeat success. Also in this section Beswick shows how to apply the psychologist’s professional skills to work with a constructive approach in the most competitiveness situations, because “pressure is nothing more that the shadow of a great opportunity.”

Recensione libro: Soccer science

Soccer Science

Tony Strudwick (Editor)

Human Kinetics, 2016, p. 649

http://www.humankinetics.com/products/all-products/soccer-science

The book is very interesting for the reason that it provides to the reader a global and in the same specific vision of what soccer is today, played by 250 million of persons in more than 200 countries. It’s the world’s most popular sport. Goal of the book is to describe how to use the scientific principles to optimize the players’ performance and the preparation. All the chapters are relevant for soccer  but in my review I selected the chapters and the topics that could be more useful for the sport psychologists. The section 2 concerns the talent selection and the player development. In the Mujika and Castagna’s chapter, titled “Practical aspects of player selection and development”,  emerges very clearly that in soccer the relative effect age continues to be a resource to select the players, influencing the drop-out at the age of 12 years and not giving the consideration needed to the role of maturation in the player development. The authors conclude that the talent identification continues to be a critical point in soccer. The following chapter by Unnithan and Iga, titled “Development of the young soccer player”, treats the development of the young soccer players, it’s an updated presentation about the integration among growth, maturation, demands of match and the physiological components concerning the youth soccer players. From the side of sport psychologist also the contribute by Paul Ford, titled “Skill acquisition and learning through practice and other activities”, provides many useful and updated information. He reviews the perceptual-cognitive skills and the decision making processes involved in what in soccer is called “reading the game” and “affecting the game.” These two processes run in parallel and interact together. The chapter presents also the two categories of activities practiced during the training to improve these skills; the drill-type activities (focused on technique and skills) and the game-based activities (containing match-like situations). The author provides also information about the situation where the players use the fast thinking, so called intuition, compared to slow thinking, called reasoning.

In the world are produced each year 85 million balls and one chapter by Andy Garland and Henry Hanson has been published in this book: “Soccer ball dynamics.” Topics like the history of soccer ball development, material, design and construction, social responsibility, ball performances are presented. Other parts of the book regard the soccer biomechanical and physiological aspects and demands, the conditioning programs, the nutritional needs, the environmental  stressor, (altitude, temperature), soccer boots and playing surfaces.

The first chapter devoted to sport psychology is by Geir Jordet, titled “Psychology and elite soccer performance.” He identified 11 key skills showed by the players. They refer to self-determination, motivation, recovery processes and learning from mistakes. A second level of competences regards the players’ interpersonal skills and the ability to be adapted at the new contexts. A third level is composed by different conditions to cope with (adversity, pressure, success). The last emerging factors are the control game dynamics trough the anticipation processes, about what is going to happen in few seconds and the desire to innovatively provide, following the Anders Ericcson’s words, “a unique innovative contribution”. The second chapter of this part by Matt Pain, titled “Mental interventions”, is about the 5Cs mental of toughness regarding the assessment and the development of the following skills: commitment, communication, concentration, control, confidence. It’s the model used by Football Association in England to develop the youth’s psychological competences. The chapter provides case studies based on one-to-one work with players, coaching interventions and team practices to develop this mental approach. Its interest is in numerous practical situations proposed and developed to cope with these five mental skills. The third and last chapter is by Mark Nesti, titled “Performance mind-set.” The author identified four key topics as important for sport psychologists and coaches, they are: anxiety, identity, critical comments and life beyond the training ground. It must be noted that compared to the two contributes these chapter is more based around the authors’ professional experiences with several teams of the English Premier League. Nesti worked more in one-to-one situation with players and coaches than with team, for the concrete limitation to engaging in group works in professional teams. The author said that this approach was useful to meet better and in deep the needs of the players and the type of challenge they had to face. The last two parts of this book are related to the Tactics and strategies (four chapters) and Match performance and analysis (four chapters). It’s a very informative book useful for all are involved in soccer at different levels.

Recensione libro: The Autism Fitness Handbook

The Autism Fitness Handbook

David S. Geslak

Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London & Philadelphia

2015, 168 p. – 54 illustrations

 

This book is one of the very few contributions devoted to provide information, guidance and practical supports  to people who want to start a motor program with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The main goal achieved by David Geslak is to write and focus us on abilities, rather than on mental and physical problems. It’s a true fitness book, which describe a specific program based on 46 exercises to practice. The Author said the program has been used not only with children but with adults too, determining improvements independently from the ability possessed at the begin of the activity.

The program is divided in four parts: engage, educate, empower and exercise. The first part talks about the way to involve the children in the program. In this section very important are the patient and motivation of the teachers, their ability to provide structure and routine and the use of visual supports (e.g., pictures, cards, timers), in the same time it’s important that the parents at home are committed in the same direction, improving the child health, for example also following an adequate food and beverage management and continue the movement activities.  The second part talks about education, that means why they are exercising. In this section are described the five components of physical fitness: body image, motor coordination, posture, muscular and cardiovascular fitness. There is also an additional item regarding the children abdominal strength, part of the body image and muscular fitness,  weak in these children and it needs to be reinforced. The third part talks about empower, in this section are reviewed the champion stories and exercise routines used by David Geslak with eight people with ASD. The fourth part regards the exercise area. It proposes exercises following the five components, including abdominal strength. Each of the 46 exercises is described in term of goal satisfied, how to do, repetitions and coaching tips. I appreciate this contribute to spread the physically active life style also in children with ASD, based on the assertive concept to start from their competences to improve them in the long period with a specific program.